An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Common Sense
Release on 2014-03-21 | by Thomas Reid
something common to smells, and something else common to tastes, whereby the one is distinguished from the other? It seems most probable that the latter is the case; and that, under the appearance of the greatest simplicity, ...
The philosopher Thomas Reid (1710 – 1796), the founder of the Scottish School of Common Sense and, was with his contemporary David Hume, played an integral role in the Scottish Enlightenment. Reid's classic treatise on phenomenology includes the following chapters: Chapter I. Introduction I. The importance of the subject, and the means of prosecuting it II. The impediments to our knowledge of the mind III. The present state of this part of philosophy—of Des Cartes, Nalebranche, and Locke IV. Apology for those philosophers V. Of Bishop Berkeley—the “Treatise of Human Nature”—and of scepticism VII. The system of all these authors is the same and leads to scepticism VIII. We ought not to despair of a better Chapter II. Of Smelling I. The order of proceeding. II. The sensation considered abstractly III. Sensation and its remembrance natural principles of belief IV. Judgment and belief in some cases precede simple apprehension V. Two theories of the nature of belief refuted. Conclusions from what hath been said VI. Apology for metaphysical absurdities. Sensation without a sentient, a consequence of the theory of ideas. Consequences of this strange opinion VII. The conception and belief of a sentient being or mind, is suggested by our constitution. The notion of relations not always got by comparing the related ideas VIII. There is a quality or virtue in bodies, which we call their smell. How this is connected in the imagination with the sensation IX. That there is a principle in human nature, from which the notion of this, as well as all other natural virtues or causes, is derived X. Whether in sensations the mind is active or passive Chapter III. Of Tasting Chapter IV. Of Hearing I. Variety of sounds. Their place and distance learned by custom, without reasoning II. Of natural language Chapter V. Of Touch I. Of heat and cold II. Of hardness and softness III. Of natural signs IV. Of hardness, and other primary qualities VI. Of extension VII. Of extension VIII. Of the existence of a material world IX. Of the systems of philosophers concerning the senses Chapter VI. Of Seeing I. The excellence and dignity of this faculty II. Sight discovers almost nothing which the blind may not comprehend. The reason of this III. Of the visible appearances of objects IV. That colour is a quality of bodies, not a sensation of the mind V. First inference from the preceding VI. Second. That none of our sensations are resemblances of any of the qualities of bodies VII. Of visible figure and extension VIII. Some queries concerning visible figure answered IX. Of the geometry of visibles X. Of the parallel motion of the eyes XI. Of our seeing objects erect by inverted images XII. The same subject continued XIII. Of seeing objects single with two eyes XIV. Of the laws of vision in brute animals XV. The phenomena of squinting considered hypothetically XVI. Facts relating to squinting XVII. Of the effect of custom in seeing objects single XVIII. Of Dr. Porterfield’s account of single and double vision XIX. Of Dr. Briggs's theory, and Sir Isaac Newton's conjecture on this subject XX. Of perception in general XXI. Of the process of nature in perception XXII. Of the signs by which we learn to perceive distance from, the eye XXIII. Of the signs used in these acquired perceptions Chapter VII. Conclusion