For the third time, specialists from all over the world met to present their most recent scientific results and to update their knowledge in the expand ing field of nutrition and, osteoporosis. Major nutrition-al factors, such as calcium and vitamin D, were reexamined, with special attention on the ef fects of calcium, given either as a supplement or in dairy products in chil dren and adolescents, and to vitamin D supplementation in the elderly. The RDA for calcium was questioned, and the calcium requirement was rede fined. Special attention was paid to proteins and their growth promoting action via IGF-l, as well as to the profound effects on calcium and bone metabolism of vegetarian diets or diets rich in acidic or alkaline foods. Although considered an environmental factor influencing the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, nutrition was discussed in relation to genetic conditions, because certain genetic conditions modifY patients' responses to nutritional deficiencies and to supplementary interventions. These proceedings report the wide spectrum of research currently being undertaken and the new perspectives this presents and emphasize the sig nificant and important impact of nutrition on bone health and disease.